Wednesday, July 25, 2018

Crops and livestock on the same farms, the same fields–why?

Mature cows are grazing pearl millet cover crop in the foreground. Grain sorghum for cash cropping is shown in the background. Photo by Alan Franzluebbers 

New twist brings back traditional farming practice

Traditionally, farms included a variety of grazing animals, pastures, and crops. Mechanization and other factors prompted many farms to adopt more efficient systems. The July 22nd Sustainable, Secure Food blog explains why the traditional approach to variety in agriculture is getting a second look.

Integrated agricultural systems—using farmland for a variety of purposes—made sense for farmers whose distribution was limited to the local area. Alan Franzluebbers, USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC, says it can make sense again.

“Interest in re-integrating farms to take advantage of the synergies between crops and livestock has increased in the past few decades,” he says. “Farmers can match the energy and nutrient flows of different enterprises (i.e. types of livestock and types of crops) to meet the desired outcomes.”

Integrated systems have several benefits:
• Using nutrient-rich animal manures can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers.
• Forage and grazing land can improve soil health by returning carbon and, in the case of forage legumes, valued nitrogen to the soil.
• Pastures can moderate the effects of drought and flood, due to their deeper roots and variety of plants in them.
• Crops grown in rotation with forages can be more profitable, with a lower fertilizer cost.
• The diversity of income reduces the overall financial risk to the grower.
“Diverse agricultural systems that include livestock, perennial grasses and legumes, and a wide variety of annual forages offer enhanced agro-ecosystem resilience in the face of uncertain climate and market conditions,” Franzluebbers says.

To read the complete blog, visit Sustainable, Secure Food at

American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America: Our members are researchers and trained, certified, professionals in the areas of growing our world’s food supply, while protecting our environment. Our scientists work at universities, government research facilities and private businesses across the United States and the world.

Monday, July 16, 2018

Nearly $2 Billion Now Available for Eligible Producers Affected by 2017 Hurricanes and Wildfires

WASHINGTON, July 16, 2018 – Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue today announced that agricultural producers affected by hurricanes and wildfires in 2017 now may apply for assistance to help recover and rebuild their farming operations. Signup begins July 16, 2018, and continues through November 16, 2018.
“Hurricanes and wildfires caused billions of dollars in losses to America’s farmers last year. Our objective is to get relief funds into the hands of eligible producers as quickly as possible,” said Secretary Perdue. “We are making immediate, initial payments of up to 50 percent of the calculated assistance so producers can pay their bills.”
Additional payments will be issued, if funds remain available, later in the year.
The program, known as the 2017 Wildfires and Hurricanes Indemnity Program (2017 WHIP) was authorized by Congress earlier this year by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018.
Eligible crops, trees, bushes, or vines, located in a county declared in a Presidential Emergency Disaster Declaration or Secretarial Disaster Designation as a primary county are eligible for assistance if the producer suffered a loss as a result of a 2017 hurricane. Also, losses located in a county not designated as a primary county may be eligible if the producer provides documentation showing that the loss was due to a hurricane or wildfire in 2017. A list of counties that received qualifying hurricane declarations and designations is available at Eligibility is determined by Farm Service Agency (FSA) county committees.
Agricultural production losses due to conditions caused by last year’s wildfires and hurricanes, including excessive rain, high winds, flooding, mudslides, fire, and heavy smoke, could qualify for assistance through the program. Typically, 2017 WHIP is only designed to provide assistance for production losses, however, if quality was taken into consideration under the insurance or Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) policy, where production was further adjusted, the adjusted production will be used in calculating assistance under this program.
Eligible crops include those for which federal crop insurance or NAP coverage is available, excluding crops intended for grazing. A list of crops covered by crop insurance is available through the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Actuarial Information Browser at
Eligibility will be determined for each producer based on the size of the loss and the level of insurance coverage elected by the producer. A WHIP factor will be determined for each crop based on the producer’s coverage level. Producers who elected higher coverage levels will receive a higher WHIP factor.
The 2017 WHIP payment factor ranges from 65 percent to 95 percent, depending upon the level of crop insurance coverage or NAP coverage that a producer obtained for the crop. Producers who did not insure their crops in 2017 will receive 65 percent of the expected value of the crop. Insured producers will receive between 70 percent and 95 percent of expected value; those who purchased the highest levels of coverage will receive 95-percent coverage.
Each eligible producer requesting 2017 WHIP benefits will be subject to a payment limitation of either $125,000 or $900,000, depending upon their average adjusted gross income, which will be verified. The payment limit is $125,000 if less than 75 percent of the person or legal entity’s average adjusted gross income is average adjusted gross farm income. The payment limit is $900,000, if 75 percent or more of the average adjusted gross income of the person or legal entity is average adjusted gross farm income.
Both insured and uninsured producers are eligible to apply for 2017 WHIP. However, all producers receiving 2017 WHIP payments will be required to purchase crop insurance and/or NAP, at the 60 percent coverage level or higher, for the next two available crop years to meet statutory requirements. Producers who fail to purchase crop insurance for the next two applicable years will be required to pay back the 2017 WHIP payment.
To help expedite payments, a producer who does not have records established at the local USDA service center are encouraged to do so early in the process. To establish a record for a farm, a producer needs:
  • Proof of identity: driver’s license and Social Security number/card;
  • Copy of recorder deed, survey plat, rental, or lease agreement of the land. A producer does not have to own property to participate in FSA programs;
  • Corporation, estate, or trust documents, if applicable
Once signup begins, a producer will be asked to provide verifiable and reliable production records. If a producer is unable to provide production records, USDA will calculate the yield based on the county average yield. A producer with this information on file does not need to provide the information again.
For more information on FSA disaster assistance programs, please contact your local USDA service center or visit

Monday, July 9, 2018

Save farms and ranches to save the planet, says American Farmland Trust

Washington, DC – — Today, American Farmland Trust joins other major agriculture and conservation organizations at a “Learning Lab” for the U.S. Climate Alliance Natural and Working Lands Initiative. A team of over 50 technical experts from government, academia and industry will provide technical assistance to state governments on how to draw down carbon from the air and sequester it in the soil across diverse systems such as farms, rangelands, forests and wetlands. The lab also will help states develop strategies related to policy development and funding projects.

American Farmland Trust is working in partnership with Coalition on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (C-AGG), American Forests, the Forest-Climate Working Group, The Nature Conservancy, World Resources Institute, and The Trust for Public Land to support the Natural and Working Lands Initiative. 

Governors from the U.S. Climate Alliance member states will be attending the Global Climate Action Summit in September, when thousands of global leaders will convene in San Francisco to strategize about accelerating and scaling up emissions reductions. The U.S. Climate Alliance will provide an update on 2018 initiatives, including the Natural and Working Lands Initiative, at the Summit.

“Only by sequestering carbon on natural and working ag lands can we achieve the goal of drawing down the carbon needed to help reverse climate change,” said Jimmy Daukas, AFT senior program officer. “But we are losing three acres of farmland in the United States every minute. It is critical that we protect the best land for food production – and that we improve the health of our soil nationwide so that it sequesters more carbon. AFT has developed proven strategies for achieving both goals.” 

AFT launched its climate initiative, “Farmers Combating Climate Change,” in 2017. The goals of the program are to:

Protect farmland and promote smart growth to significantly reduce emissions
Improve soil health to reverse climate change and improve productivity
Build support among the farm community and advance policies

“The loss of agricultural capacity – in acres of land and inches of soil – is unsustainable and will contribute to the devasting impacts of climate change,” Daukas said. “The U.S. Climate Alliance Natural and Working Lands Initiative is an important and urgently needed effort in the march to stem this loss.”


American Farmland Trust is the only national conservation organization dedicated to protecting farmland, promoting sound farming practices and keeping farmers on the land. AFT’s innovative work led to a national a movement to save the land that sustains us. No Farms, No Food.  Since 1980, American Farmland Trust has helped to permanently protect more than six and one half million acres of farmland and ranchland and led the way for the adoption of conservation practices on millions more. Learn more at

Thursday, July 5, 2018

Why FAMACHA© Score?

A program of the National Center for Appropriate Technology 1-800-346-9140

The Barber Pole Worm is present throughout the United States and represents the
greatest single intestinal parasite threat to small ruminants. In the arid West, irrigated
pastures are breeding grounds for the Barber Pole. The Barber Pole Worm sucks
blood from the abomasum in the ewe, ram, or lamb, causing it to become anemic.
This anemic condition can be noted in mucosal tissue, especially the lower eyelid.
FAMACHA scoring quantifi es the anemic condition, making it easy for producers to
diagnose and treat only the infected animals, creating benefi cial outcomes. Initially,
FAMACHA should be used in conjunction with a Fecal Egg Count (ask your veterinarian)
to ascertain the species of worm involved. However, if you have anemia, you
most likely have the Barber Pole Worm. Lambs and lactating ewes under stress are
most susceptible. Be especially watchful for the health of weaned lambs!

Use FAMACHA to Create Parasite Refugia
Unrestrained use of dewormers has caused Barber Pole Worm to develop
resistance to all three classes of dewormers: Benzamidizoles, Ivermectins,
and Levamizoles.
FAMACHA fi rst!! Then get out the dewormer and treat only the sheep that are
infected. This creates refugia, diluting the parasite genetic pool. If you only deworm those sheep that are exhibiting the symptoms
of the infection and leave the others alone, both resistant and non-resistant worms can interbreed.
Conversely, if you deworm all sheep, the only worms left to interbreed with each other are the real bad guys. You then create a
population of the super worm, which is soon completely resistant to the dewormer.

How to Create Refugia Using FAMACHA
Treat sheep with a FAMACHA score of 3, 4, or 5. Leave the others alone. Typically, you will treat 20 to 30% of the fl ock, which
harbors 80% of the infection.
Never turn treated animals into a clean pasture by themselves.
Enter all animals scored into fl ock records for future reference and management.
Score animals as needed. Every two weeks during the parasite season is recommended if you have less than 10% of the fl ock score
4 or 5. It may be necessary to FAMACHA score weekly in periods of high infestation if more than 10% of the fl ock scores 4 or 5.
Remember, once you take sheep off of pasture, there is a lag period of approximately one month in which they may still become
anemic. Don’t forget to keep monitoring. Consider suspending monitoring when you only have 2% of the fl ock scoring 3, 4, or 5.

The Practical Advantages of FAMACHA Scoring
Creating refugia increases the eff ective life of a dewormer.
Because 70 to 80% of the infection typically resides in 20 to 30% of the fl ock, you will use much less dewormer.
It will take you less time to deworm your sheep.
With good facilities and some practice, two people (one scoring, one drenching) can score and deworm 125 to 150 sheep per hour.
If you FAMACHA score regularly, you will be able to identify infected individuals early, reducing production losses.
Indirectly, FAMACHA scoring can tell you if your dewormer is working. Treated sheep should show improvement in FAMACHA
score within seven to 10 days after deworming. Use a Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test
FSA-9608.pdf or DrenchRite® Assay to confi rm any suspicions of dewormer resisitance.
FAMACHA scoring can be an early warning alert of signifi cant Barber Pole Worm loads on your pastures. A large uptick in
FAMACHA 3 and 4 scores should initiate appropriate measures to mitigate the threat.
– Graze to control (see the ATTRA tipsheet, Barber Pole Worm: Graze to Control).
– Remove from pastures to feed stored feed, such as hay that is adequate in protein.
– Move to dryland pastures, if available.
– Graze fi elds that have been previously hayed.
Integrated Parasite Management: Train the Trainer Project
Other Excellent Uses of FAMACHA Scoring
Selecting ewe-lamb replacements. Choose ewe lambs that score 1 and 2 throughout the pasture season.
Selecting cull ewes. The economic value of any chronic 3- or 4-score ewe should be questioned. Remember, not only do they
lessen the fl ock’s genetic resistance to the Barber Pole Worm, they are shedding millions of eggs onto your pasture. Do you need that?
Selecting rams from your own fl ock or those that are bought. Select rams from 1- and 2-score dams and those that demonstrate
1 and 2 scores on your pasture.
Screening for DrenchRite Assay testing. It has been our experience in 2017 Montana State University fi eld research (unpublished)
that in order to meet the DrenchRite Assay requirement of 500 eggs per gram, fecal samples must usually be taken
from sheep that FAMACHA score 3 or 4. It is preferable to have at least one-third of the samples from 4-score animals.
Imported sheep—inspect them before buying or, if already purchased, while in a two-week quarantine. Remember, when you
buy sheep, you are also buying the parasites they harbor and the deworming regimen that they have been subjected to.
Ask fi rst. Don’t buy resistance!
See if you need to deworm at all.
– Less than 45 days on pasture – you may not need to deworm—no infection yet.
During the parasite season, whenever you have your hands on a ewe or lamb, FAMACHA score it. Make that second nature.
It will give you a mental picture of the Barber Pole Worm status in your fl ock.
Sheep are not like cows. They have a high pain threshold and don’t show the fi rst signs of illness except by their behavior. Any
sheep who does not have her eyes and ears directed to the shepherd is sick. FAMACHA score any sick animal. On rainfall or
irrigated pastures, the two greatest causes of sick sheep are parasites and pneumonia. An animal can be suff ering from parasites,
pneumonia, or both. Often, parasitic infection weakens the animal, predisposing it to pneumonia, or vice versa. It’s easy to
learn how to use a FAMACHA card, a thermometer, and a stethoscope. You can be your own vet 80% of the time. Want to know
what a healthy lung and a pneumonia lung sound like? Check this:

Where Can I Learn How to FAMACHA Score?
Attend one of the Integrated Parasite Management workshops in Montana, Wyoming, or Utah in 2018 and 2019. Contact
Dave Scott at 406-533-6642, or visit
See the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control website at
Complete the online FAMACHA Course off ered by the University of Rhode Island at

Related ATTRA Resources
Don’t Let the Barber Pole Worm Devastate Your Flock,
FAMACHA Scoring Out West,
Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats,
Managing Internal Parasites: Success Stories,
Tips for Preventing Internal Parasites,
Tips for Treating Internal Parasites,
Tips for Managing Internal Parasites,
Tipsheet: Organic Management of Internal and External Livestock Parasites,
Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats: Animal Selection,
Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats: Pasture Management,

Other Resources
American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control
Why FAMACHA© Score?
By Dave Scott, NCAT Agriculture Specialist • Published June 2018. ©NCAT
IP562 • Slot 590
Produced by the National Center for Appropriate Technology
(parent organization to the ATTRA Project, • 1-800-ASK-NCAT
This material is based upon work that is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, under award number 2016-38640-25383 through the Western Sustainable Agriculture
Research and Education program under subaward number EW 17-011. USDA is an equal
opportunity employer and service provider.
Any opinions, fi ndings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this
publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily refl ect the view
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Contact Us! attra.ncat org Toll-free: 1-800-346-9140 Email:

Monday, July 2, 2018

American Farmland Trust's 10th Annual Farmers Market Celebration

Washington, D.C., July 2, 2018 – Today, American Farmland Trust announces the launch of its tenth annual Farmers Market Celebration, set to run through September 21. The Celebration is a national effort to promote the importance of family farmers and farmers’ markets, while also raising awareness about the loss of America's farmland.

There is no better way to nourish ourselves and celebrate the people that nourish our communities than by supporting your local farmers market. That’s why for our tenth summer, AFT’s Farmers Market Celebration encourages market shoppers, family farmers, community activists, and anyone who believes in the power of local food to endorse their favorite market in four categories: 

Focus on Farmers
Healthy Food for All
Pillar of the Community
Champion for the Environment

At the end of the Celebration, AFT will present awards to the top markets in each of the four categories above. AFT will also recognize a "People's Choice" winner and the top three most recommended markets in each state. 

All summer long, farmers and shoppers are encouraged to use the hashtag #OnMyFork to show off the best of what their market has to offer and to highlight the importance of our food choices in supporting family farmers. We want to showcase the markets that make your community proud, so join the conversation and share your story with AFT on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram!

Local food and local food producers are the foundation of local economies and communities. Farmers and consumers both benefit.  Studies show that producers that participate in farmers markets have a 10% greater chance of staying in business, and people who shop at the local markets save 25% a year in food costs. 

To endorse your favorite farmers market, visit The Celebration began June 21, 2018 at noon EST and closes on September 21, 2018 at midnight EST. 


American Farmland Trust is the only national conservation organization dedicated to protecting farmland, promoting sound farming practices and keeping farmers on the land. AFT’s innovative work led to a national a movement to save the land that sustains us. No Farms, No Food.  Since 1980, American Farmland Trust has helped to permanently protect more than six and one half million acres of farmland and ranchland and led the way for the adoption of conservation practices on millions more. Learn more at